Speak to me (level A2 - B1)
by Sergei Mkrtchian
Unit 1
Task 1
Discuss it.
1. What do you know about the Solar System?
2. What do you know about the Sun?
3. Do you know any planets in the Solar System?
4. What do you know about the Moon?
Task 2. Fill the gaps with the words and the phrase. You can use one word or a phrase more than once. Then read and translate.
travel, give, in the same way, object, around, star
1. The Solar System is a group of planets and other ______ revolving _______ the Sun.

2. The Sun is a ______ – a big ball of hot gas. It ______ us light and heat.

3. The Earth travels _______ the Sun, and the Earth is the only planet where life exists.

4. The Moon is a ball of rock that ________ around the Earth, __________ that the Earth travels around the Sun. It is smaller than the Earth and takes 28 days to make one orbit.
Task 3. Answer the questions.
What objects do you see around you?
Do you like hot weather?
What else gives light and heat?
Do you study the same way as your brother/sister or friends?
Where do you like to travel? Do you like to travel around your country?
Do you think, does life exist on other planets?
The rule (in Russian)
Имя прилагательное — самостоятельная часть речи, обозначающая признак предмета и отвечающая на вопросы какой? какая? какое? какие? чей? В английском языке прилагательные имеют три степени, как и в русском: положительную, сравнительную и превосходную. Положительная степень – это начальная форма прилагательного, например: умный, ленивый, глупый, сложный и т.д.. Чтобы употребить прилагательное в сравнительной и превосходной степенях, необходимо к самому прилагательному прибавить суффиксы (-er, -est) или сопутствующие слова (more, the most). Ниже указано, в каких случаях прибавлять суффиксы, а в каких сопутствующие слова.

из грамматического справочника Yummy English ( https://yummyenglish.ru/textbooks#!/tproduct/110523462-1497456130776 )
Способ построения с суффиксами er (в сравнительной степени), est (в превосходной степени) применяется в случаях: с односложными прилагательными; с двусложными прилагательными оканчивающимися на (-er, -ow, -y, -le).

Сравнительная степень: short (короткий) – shorter (короче); easy (легкий) – easier (короче); clever (умный) – cleverer (умнее).
Превосходная степень: short (короткий) – the shortest (самый короткий); easy (легкий) – the easiest (самый легкий); clever (умный) – the cleverest (самый умный).

Способ построения с сопутствующими словами more (в сравнительной степени), the most (в превосходной степени) применяется в остальных случаях.

Сравнительная степень: stupid (глупый) – more stupid (глупее); difficult (сложный)– more difficult (сложнее).
Превосходная степень: stupid (глупый) – the most stupid (самый глупый); difficult (сложный) – the most difficult (самый сложный).
Положительная степень: Good – хороший; Bad – плохой; Little – маленький; Many – много; Far – далекий
Сравнительная степень: Better – лучше; Worse – хуже; Less – меньше; More – больше; Farther/further – дальше
Превосходная степень: The best – лучший; The worst – худший; The least – наименьший; The most – самый больший; The farthest/ the furthest – самый дальний.
Useful adjectives
Task 4. Read the sentences and try to translate them. Then put all the adjectives given in bold in two possible forms.
1. This is such a small table, there is not space for two of us.

2. We are close friends.

3. We were standing under the Sun in blistering temperatures, it was so hot.

4. This book is so thin, I will finish it in an hour.

5. I like bright colours, but I don't like black or grey colours.

6. Your answer is similar to Michael's answer, did he help you?
7. Pythagoras was an ancient Greek philosopher.

8. Water is a vital thing.

9. I come from a large family, I have three brothers and a sister.

10. There is no ideal answer to your question.

11. My granny lives far from us, that is why I don't see her very often.

12. I don't like rocky beaches, I like it sand and I like building sandy castles.
13. Jupiter is huge, it is the biggest planet in the Solar System.

14. A rainbow is a colourful thing but you cannot touch it.

15. Do you see a flying bird in the sky?

16. Two hours ago it was raining hard. In fact, it was a raging storm, but now the weather is calm.

17. Your jeans are dry now, you can wear them.
18. Can you hear the wind? It is so powerful.

19. He is a good friend of mine.

20. Gagarin is famous all over the world.

21. There are thick clouds in the sky, I think it will be raining soon.

22. This snake may be poisonous, don't touch it, it is dangerous.

23. In February it is freezing cold in Siberia.
Useful phrases and words
Increasing order of
Extremely cold
Presence of
As it can be seen
Made up of
Definite orbit
Due to which
At very high speed
Task 5
Watch the video and answer the questions.
1. How many planets are there in the Solar System? Name them.
2. What do the planets do?
3. Why is it so cold on Mercury during the day?
4. Why is Venus called a morning star?
5. Due to what is Earth called the blue planet?
6. What makes Mars red in colour?
7. Jupiter is more than 1,300 times the volume of Earth. What does this mean?
8. What are the Staurn's rings made up of?
9. What covers the planet Uranus?
10. What winds blow in Neptune?
Our topic for today is 'Planets of the Solar System'.
small, close, blistering, hot, thin, freezing, cold, bright, similar, thick, poisonous, dangerous, ancient, vital, large, ideal, far, rocky, dry, powerful, big, famous, huge, colorful, rolling, flying, hard, calm, raging.
1. There are _______ temperatures on Venus. 2. On Mercury it is ____ than on Mars. 3. How do you think, on what planet temperature is _________. I think it is Neptune. 4. I think Venus is ________ than Mars. 5. Where is the atmosphere _______? I think It is Venus. Its atmosphere is made of acid. 6. I think oxygen is ________ for a human. If you have oxygen in the atmosphere, you will have water too. 7. Unfortunately there is no other _____ planet for people in the Solar System. 8. What is the second ______ planet in our Solar System? 9. Did you know, that Venus is as ______ a planet as Mars. 10. The atmosphere of Mercury is _______ than the atmosphere of Mars. 11. Jupiter is a _____ planet, in fact it is the biggest. 12. I like that planets have so many colours, but I think that Jupiter is _______. 13. The winds on Neptune are _______ than on Saturn. 14. The seasons on Earth and Mars are _____. 15. If you look up in the sky in a dark night, you will see ______planets. 16. Venus is a cloudy planet, just like Jupiter and Saturn. These planets have ______ atmosphere among all planets of the Solar System.
Task 6. Fill the gaps. Put the adjectives in the correct form. You are given more adjectives than sentences.
Task 7. Read and Translate.
text from https://www.dkfindout.com edited by Sergei M.
Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the closest to the Sun. During the day temperatures can reach up to blistering 806 Fahrenheit (430 Celsius), which is hot enough to melt lead. However, Mercury has a very thin atmosphere, so the heat of the day escapes very quickly at nighttime. Nights on Mercury are freezing cold, much colder than the coldest place on Earth. The name Mercury comes from a Roman god renowned for his swiftness.
Venus is the second planet from the sun and the second brightest object in the night sky after Earth's moon. Although it has a similar size and weight to Earth, humans could never live on Venus, its atmosphere is thick with poisonous gas, and temperatures on the ground are hotter than in an oven. The surface of Venus is hidden by thick clouds of acid. Despite its dangerous environment, Venus takes its name from the ancient Roman goddess of love and beauty.
The third planet from the Sun, Earth is the only planet in the universe where life exists . It has two things that are vital for living creatures: an atmosphere rich in oxygen, and a large supply of liquid water on its surface. Earth is at an ideal distance from the Sun — if it were closer, it would be so hot that water would boil away. If it were any further away, its surface would be cold and frozen like Mars.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It's a rocky planet about half the size of Earth. Mars and Earth share some similarities. Both planets have seasons and both have layers of ice at their North and South poles. However, unlike Earth, the surface of Mars is cold and dry, with only a thin atmosphere that is mostly made up of carbon dioxide gas. Its name comes from the Roman God of war.
The fifth planet from the Sun, Jupiter is the largest planet in our Solar System. It's more than 1,300 times the volume of Earth. Jupiter is a gas giant, made mostly of hydrogen and helium with a small rocky core. Near the surface, powerful forces wipe up clouds of brightly colored misty-looking gas, forming storms that can grow bigger than the Earth and last for hundreds of years. Jupiter was named after the king of the Roman gods.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in our Solar System after Jupiter. It is famous for its huge system of colorful rings. Saturn has a large family of more than 60 moons. Like Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, Saturn is a gas giant — a huge ball of gas and liquid with a small core at its very center. Saturn was named after the Roman God of agriculture and wealth.
Uranus is the third largest planet in the Solar System and the second furthest from the Sun. While most planets spin upright, Uranus spins on its side like a rolling ball. Scientist believe that other flying objects much larger than an asteroid made the planet tip over. Uranus is named after the ancient Greek god of the sky. It is very hard to see from Earth with the naked eye and it is very the first planet to be discovered using a telescope.
Neptune is the second coldest planet in the Solar System, after Uranus, and the farthest from the Sun. Methane gas in the upper atmosphere makes it look blue in colour. At the top of its cloud layers the temperature is usually a freezing minus 330 Fahrenheit (minus 201 Celsius), though it can get even colder. Unlike its calm neighbor Uranus, Neptune often experiences raging storms. The planet takes its name from the ancient Roman god of the sea.
Task 8. Say what planet is it? Don't look at the text above.
1. What planet's atmosphere is rich in oxygen?
2. It has a huge system of colorful rings, a large family of more than 60 moons and a small core at its very center.
3. This planet often experiences raging storms.
4. Its name comes from a Roman god renowned for his swiftness
5. It's a rocky planet about half the size of Earth.
6. It is very hard to see from Earth with the naked eye
7. It's more than 1,300 times the volume of Earth.
8. Although it has a similar size and weight to Earth, its atmosphere is thick with poisonous gas.
in the increasing order of, the volume of, with naked eyes, similar to, about half the, rich in, experience, the very, made up of, due to which
1. It wasn't blue, but it was __________ colour to blue, may be with some greenish tone. 2. I think it is __________ length of the diameter of the tube which is something like 2 inches. 3. Years ago my family lived on this _____ street. 4. The administration had made several wrong decisions, _________ the company experienced negative impacts. 5. Every next task will be harder to do than the previous one, they all go __________ difficulty. 6.The library in our city has 200 times __________ the books of our school library. That's why I go to the city library, when I don't find books in our school library. 7. Almond milk doesn't have the ________ taste as cow milk but it tastes just fine, and is a good substitute for natural milk if you want to start eating vegan food. 8. Now I live closer to the downtown and I spend __________ the time I spent before to get to my work place. 9. We live in an dangerous area. That fear forced us to create patrols, _________ local men. 10. The school is _________ 3 buildings, where students can study and spend after school time in the retreat area. 11. ___________________ distance, towns become smaller and smaller. 12. I think it is very hard to see Saturn's rings ___________
Task 9. Fill the gaps with the phrases and the words given. You can use one phrese or a word more than once.
________, you must use a telescope. 13. Russia has 30 times _______ pure water of Africa. 14. The only other bear of a ______ size to the polar bear is the Kodiak bear, which is a subspecies of brown bear. 15. This castle is ______ history, it was built in the 12th century. You could spend days learning about important events that took place here, and you still wouldn't scratch the surface. 16. We ________ a lot of difficulty in selling our house, due to the location far from the center. 17. These bottles of wine must be sorted out _________ age. 18. This year the storm has ruined less than twice ________ the trees of the previous year, which is good news. 19. Why have you moved to Brooklyn from Manhattan? Well, you know, coffee in Brooklyn is ________ price of coffee in Manhattan and tastes better. 20. Apples are ______ iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C. 21. My grandfather is old, but he can read a newspaper _________. 22. Line up your baggage _____________ weight. 23. I am sorry, I forgot my spectacles at home and I cannot read the price _____________, can you help me, please. 24. This tool _________great deformation, it is of no use now.
Task 10.

What new facts about the Solar System have you learned?
The Solar System Song
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